Women of Abya Yala

From a Womanist and Decolonial Perspective

By Yenny Delgado

After many decades of work and mobilization against laws that seek control over women’s roles in society, maternity decisions, women’s political participation, and women’s ecclesiastical leadership, among others. The women’s movement raised its voice for equality and equity in society.

In society’s meta-narrative and Judeo-Christian theological belief, man is at the center of power, society, culture, and religious practices. From the patriarchal political rules, legislative bodies are made up primarily of men that legislate on the morality of the framework of society. Indeed, for centuries the place of women has often been a place of marginalization and submission both in society and ecclesiastical spaces. This marginalization hurts the community and leads to a fracture of women’s identity, lack of clear opportunities for leadership, oppression in the family structure, and forced assimilation to cultural norms that impact social dynamics and women’s theological reflection. 

The women of Abya Yala* have experienced the colonization of our bodies and territories, humiliation, and lack of recognition of self-identity as a native population. A society built on colonizing the land and forcing native women to navigate the oppressor’s culture, history, and religious practice makes native women doubly vulnerable.

In the history of the women’s movement, the Native women’s participation, our presence, voice, and needs have been invisible. The main protagonist of the women’s struggle has long been represented by European-descendant women, who mobilized for the right to have equal participation as white men. However, other voices were left behind, even though Native women had been denouncing for decades; ethnic discrimination, racism, and supremacist ideologies were increasingly practiced.

Under this context, a theological reflection as women of Abya Yala aims to decolonize and liberate the living conditions of women through understanding our historical experiences. Recognizing the struggle and the value of our ancestral memories, our original languages, and spiritual practices provide the necessary recognition and open an opportunity for renewed discourse on the women’s movement and action in the public square and throughout society.

Womanist derives from the word “woman.”

Womanism derives from the word “woman,” and in the historical sense of the term, womanist comes from the experience of African-descendant women in the United States who were enslaved and often passed from childhood to adulthood at a young age to assume household responsibilities in the process of generational slavery to which they were subjected.

Native women’s experiences were similar; women were confined to service and forced servitude, including sexual abuse from colonizers and forced work on their own land. On the other hand, European descendant women in Abya Yala distanced themself from colonizing history. They played the role of daughters, wives, and mothers of colonizers and enslavers in Abya Yala. The lack of reflection or recognition of this history of women further highlights the benefits and positions of power and status afforded them in a white supremacist patriarchal society. Indeed, in the United States, it is estimated that approximately 40% of all enslavers of women and men of African descent based on the census from 1850 to 1860 were White women. These facts show the inequality in the women’s movement from the three significant ethnic communities (Native, African, and European descendants in Abya Yala) looking to approach liberation on women’s role in society and religious spaces.

Womanist theology against colonization and patriarchy

Women theologians of African and Native descendants in the late 1970s understood the conditions for women to visualize and have their voice. The theologians highlighted how the texts were predominantly written by white theologians and did not consider the perspectives and viewpoints of women in the church. Womanists created a methodological approach to studying and writing theology that focuses on the experience of women who struggle against oppression and colonization. 

Women developed new theologies through their role as professors, pastors, and leaders advocating for a place in the dialogue for women’s studies and perspectives in theological spaces, as well as in the field of ethical theology in which the understanding and regulations of moral norms have governed the society, the house, and the church for a long time.

The last few decades have been influential as women began to expose the triple dynamics of ethnicity, sex, and economic oppression in a colonized land. Women advocated for the right to freedom to do theological and social work from different disciplines and use intersectional work thanks to the contribution of Kimberly Crenshaw, who, since 1989, has worked on the concept of intersectionality-related systems of oppression, domination, and discrimination in the United States. Her social and academic contributions open new doors to another way of reflection. The results of these battles have given women greater autonomy in society and are now promoted as good policies in progressive governments, but still, many more challenges are ahead. 

Today we can see some results, which show in practice and establishment not only in a society where we can see women presidents and congresswomen but also in the church, with leading women becoming theologians, bishops, pastors, ruling elders, and other vital roles.

From this historical analysis, a better understanding of the women of Abya Yala can show a broader approach to how women re-imagine other forms of women who have gone through all the complex situations in a patriarchal and colonial society.

Today is clear: Abya Yala’s women empower themselves with reflections on a historical colonial experience, ancestral memory of resistance, and hope for the new future that allows them to continue raising their voices in a context of violence, disadvantages, and oppression. The discourse of the “monolithic and universal history of the women’s movement” is now amplified to integrate the native women’s history, memory, and public faith practice that continues to be shared around the community.

The countless number of unsolved cases involving disappearances and murders of women and girls of Native descendants in the Abya Yala is an example that can show the lack of attention to women’s disadvantage. A long way from the native women’s concerns was liberation in responding to historical facts and working intensely in a decolonizing Christianity from Abya Yala. However, until 2022, the cases of inequality, womencide, and discrimination against Native women of the continent struggle for true representation in academia and at a political level that continues to practice colonial ideologies.

Today the problems of ending a colonial narrative and policies are still on the agenda. Ensuring the right for native languages to be taught, access to land to cultivate and ownership, and ending forced sterilizations for governments as forms of birth control of native populations continue to be issues that women need to advocate for in the women’s movement.

Why are women in a situation of disadvantage? Reading and interpreting the Bible in context is necessary from the theological vantage point. We can read in Genesis that woman was created in the image of God. Women are not only instruments of God but call to be active in the life of God’s message. As we can read in the Bible, many women took the liberation role, such as Esther, Ruth, Mary, Lydia, and others, many of whom we will never know their names. Active participation and leadership are interwoven with pain, discrimination, and oppression were part of a religious control system that we recognize is part of women’s path.

Women of Abya Yala, from a womanist and decolonial perspective, continue to work for more inclusive practices, liberation, and proclaiming a prophetic message across the continent.

Women’s Body

A Theological Reflection on Menstruation

Women worldwide continue to be stigmatized, excluded, and discriminated against simply because of the lack of understanding of women’s natural body cycle. Unfortunately, menstruation is still considered unspeakable in polite conversation or society in general. This has been made even more prescient in light of the recent shortages and price hikes for tampons and sanitary napkins here in the United States. Even though, as a society is still great hesitancy and silence with the idea of the monthly regulatory cycle of women because the idea of seeing blood is considered dirty, impure, and painful. Why keep a stigma on a natural women bodily function?

Let’s talk about bleeding as sacred, not stigmatization

Our grandmothers, mothers, and daughters share ancestral wisdom on caring for our bodies during a menstrual cycle. Still, we often only talk about it when girls start menstruating. We share recipes for healing infusions in case of pain, how nourishment and food can heal, and preparing infusions to have balance, rest, and massage the lower area in distress. However, in patriarchal societies, the stigma closes the doors to sharing with our fathers, brothers, and later partners and husbands out of this feeling of shame. Instead of being treated positively in educating men about the menstrual cycle, women and this biological process are relegated to see how they solve their menstruation cycle alone.

Women’s body has a natural women’s cycle that allows women to be co-creators of life to the new generations. Women start their menstruation cycle around age 12, some earlier, some later in life, and menstruate for around 37 to 43 years.

The cycle is interrupted for diverse motives; a big one is considered a miracle to conceive the beginning of a new life. Pregnancy is the conception of a new life in development. It means new life for the next generation. The embryo, around week 12, is defined with chromosomes. A baby with XY chromosomes will be considered a male with no ability to reproduce or have a menstrual cycle. A baby with chromosomes XX will complete the developed reproductive system, with the uterus and ovaries with six to seven million eggs that develop around week 20 in the womb. At this moment, the life of a baby girl and the mother relate to the miracle of continued humanity.

Women are more than long hair, breasts, hips, and vagina. Focusing on only the external appearance of women’s bodies reduces the understanding of who women are and our decisive role in society as a co-creator of life. Women face possible bleeding risks due to their physical well-being, depending on the different stages of their lives. We should not be embarrassed about what happens to us each menstrual cycle. Abnormal vaginal bleeding has several causes, including endometrial polyps, fibroids, uterus infection, abortion, ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, and cervical cancer, among other complications. All these ills are specific to women, and we are often unaware of all possible medical conditions.

Millennials of the ancestral menstrual cycle are reduced to using pills and tampons without considering that the blood cycle carries harmony and balance in a woman’s life. In the middle of this natural process of life, women struggle to be behind and punished. Many women do not have the economy to buy monthly pads or pay medical attention if needed.In silence, many women die because of complications and a lack of understanding about our uterus, ovaries, and women’s functionality reproductive system.

From a theological perspective, as a church, we have also been silent on the bodily function of women. The complications each woman has and how to assume them have been limited primarily to punitive text. We read in Genesis 3: 16, “To the woman he said: —I will increase your pains when you have children, and with pain, you will give birth to them. But your desire will take you to your husband, and he will have authority over you.” The curse states that the pain experienced by the woman is due to original sin. However, Jesus and his healing found in Luke 8:43-48 helps to bring menstruation and bleeding out of the shadows.  We read: “There was a woman who had suffered from a hemorrhage for twelve years; and although she had spent all she had on doctors, no one could cure her. She came up behind Jesus and touched the edge of his clothes, and immediately the bleeding stopped.”

We focus on menstruation pain, pregnancy, and childbirth as a punishment women experience when both can also be read as a lack of social understanding and medical care. The pain of a woman suffering from bleeding for 12 years shows a difficult situation in her uterus and ovaries; her reproductive system needs attention and health and should never be seen as a punishment. It is also a social context of discrimination against women’s bodies.

In this story of Luke, we do not know the woman’s name, age, or other physical conditions of this woman who bled for so many years. Confined to anonymity, we can assume that her blood loss was due to a disease in her uterus or her ovaries, which caused low levels of iron, leading to a lack of iron, anemia, and profound fatigue. Jesus’ miracle removes the social vilification the woman had endured because of her persistent bleeding. This woman shows us the courage to reach out and touch Jesus’ dress to be healed. In this act, Jesus returned her to society with health and courage. The woman comes out of the cover-up and the shame for her physical condition stigmas of complications to a menstruation cycle that needs attention.

Still today, women face various situations due to their condition of being a woman. However, we do not fully understand or embrace our body’s biological function, which is essential to assume a positive and healthy relationship with our body. It is necessary to create a process of support and teach the next generations about what are women’s bodies and women’s cycle are very important to care.

I believe if all women unite and speak openly about our menstruation cycle, we will start channeling a more empowering view of women’s bodies. It is time to speak up and provide resources, education, and accessible medical attention to all women to ensure that menstruation can be a healthy and safe part of our life.

Here are some steps to move forward on reaffirming positivity in women’s cycle:

– Embrace your menstrual cycle with love and pride.
– Reaffirm women’s natural cycle as a women’s power of life.
– Talk about menstruation in your cycles of friends to promote ending the stigma and discrimination.
– Share your healthy practices with other women and girls.
– Donate and support initiatives to provide education about menstruation and care practices.

Mujeres haciendo teología en los Estados Unidos

Estas son las 10 teólogas que debes conocer ¡sí o sí!

En Estados Unidos se han desarrollado estudios teológicos cristianos entre los protestantes y católicos, que son de largo recorrido, pero muchas veces se les ha criticado por replicar una teología europea, centrada en una ideología de superioridad y discriminación, centrada sólo en obras desarrolladas por teólogos varones y blancos. Como consecuencia, se redujo la mirada crítica de la diversidad que se vive en el país. Esta crítica ha permitido dar valor a otras perspectivas que en las últimas décadas se han ido desarrollando, como es el caso del trabajo de las teólogas de diversas etnicidades y ancestralidades, que vienen buscando abrir nuevos caminos y formas de hacer teología en los Estados Unidos. 

A continuación, les presentamos el aporte de las 10 teólogas estadounidenses más influyentes que debes conocer:

1. Katie Cannon

Especialista en ética y la teología negra. En 1974 se convirtió en la primera mujer afroamericana ordenada en la Iglesia Presbiteriana Unida. Se le atribuye la fundación de la teología y la ética mujerista como campo. La Dra.Cannon fundó y organizó el Centro para el Liderazgo de Mujeres en el Seminario Presbiteriano de la Unión.


  • El capricho feroz de Dios: las implicaciones del feminismo para la educación teológica.
  • El canon de Katie: el feminismo y el alma de la comunidad negra.

2. Emilie M. Townes

Ha sido una pionera en teología Mujerista, un campo de estudios en el que las ideas históricas y actuales de las mujeres afrodescendientes en los Estados Unidos que ponen en relieve el compromiso crítico y las tradiciones de la teología cristiana. La Dra. Townes ha forjado un gran interés en el pensamiento crítico sobre las perspectivas mujeristas en temas como el cuidado de la salud, la justicia económica, y la teoría literaria.

Fiel a su trabajo académico ella continúa su investigación sobre la mujer y la salud en la diáspora africana en Brasil y Estados Unidos.


  • Ética teológica feminista.
  • La ética Mujerista y la producción cultural del mal entre otros.

3. Elizabeth Conde- Frasier

Es pastora ordenada de la Iglesia Bautista con más de diez años de experiencia pastoral y como teóloga práctica.

Fue fundadora del Programa de Ministerios Hispanos y Latinoamericanos Orlando E. Costas en la Escuela Teológica Andover Newton, se desempeñó como profesora titular de educación religiosa en la Escuela de teología Claremont y como decana académica y vicepresidenta de educación en Esperanza College of Eastern University. La Dra. Conde-Frazier es actualmente directora de AETH.


  • Atando Cabos: Aportes Latinx a la Educación Teológica.
  • Latinas Evangélicas: Un Estudio Teológico desde los Márgenes.
  • Institutos Bíblicos Hispanos: Una comunidad de construcción teológica.

4. Diana Hayes

Profesora emérita de Teología Sistemática en la Universidad de Georgetown. Sus áreas de especialización son la

teología mujerista, la teología negra, las teologías de la liberación de EE. UU., las teologías contextuales, la religión y la vida pública, y la espiritualidad afroamericana y mujerista.

La Dra. Hayes es la primera mujer afroamericana en recibir el título de Doctora Pontificia en Teología Sagrada (S.T.D.) de la Universidad Católica de Lovaina (Bélgica) y también ha recibido tres doctorados honorarios.


  • Sin Escalera de Cristal: Espiritualidad Mujerista.
  • Forjado en el horno de fuego: espiritualidad afroamericana.
  • Pararse en los Zapatos que Hizo Mi Madre: Una Teología Mujerista.

5. Kathryn Tanner

Su investigación relaciona la historia del pensamiento cristiano con temas contemporáneos de interés teológico utilizando la teoría social, cultural y feminista.  Durante ocho años ha sido miembro del Comité de Teología que asesora a la Cámara de Obispos de la Iglesia Episcopal.


  • Dios y la creación en la teología cristiana: ¿tiranía o empoderamiento? 
  • La política de Dios: teologías cristianas y justicia social.
  • Teorías de la cultura: una nueva agenda para la teología Jesús, la humanidad y la Trinidad: una breve teología sistemática.

6. Kelly Brown 

Decana de la Escuela de Divinidad Episcopal en el Seminario Teológico Unión en la ciudad de Nueva York. En 2019, fue nombrada para dictar la cátedra de Teología Bill y Judith Moyers.

La Dra.Brown es considerada una líder en el campo de la teología mujerista, la reconciliación racial, la justicia social y la sexualidad.


  • Defender su posición: cuerpos negros y la justicia de Dios. La sexualidad y la iglesia negra: una perspectiva mujerista. Resurrección Hope: un futuro donde las vidas de los negros importan.

7. Wonhee Anne

Teóloga, profesora y conferenciante cuya influencia en las disciplinas de la religión, la igualdad de la mujer y la experiencia asiático-estadounidense ha creado una gran cantidad de pensamiento y discurso positivo.


  • Corazón de la Cruz: una cristología poscolonial
  • Teología crítica contra el militarismo estadounidense en Asia: descolonización y desimperialización (2016)
  • Involucrar a los Estados Unidos como un imperio militar: estudios críticos del cristianismo desde perspectivas asiáticas / asiáticas de América del Norte. (2016).

8. Mary Shawn Copeland

Teóloga católica y ex hermana religiosa. Es profesora emérita de teología sistemática en el Boston College y es conocida por su trabajo en antropología teológica y teología política.

La Dra. Copeland ha ocupado cargos en la Universidad Xavier de Luisiana, la Escuela de Divinidad de Yale y la Universidad de Marquette. Trabajó como profesora adjunta en el Departamento de Teología de Boston College durante varios años.

La Dra. Copeland fue la primera afroamericana en ocupar el cargo de presidenta de la Sociedad Teológica Católica de América también fue el coordinador del Simposio Teológico Católico Negro.


  • Libertad encarnada: cuerpo, raza y ser.
  • Conociendo a Cristo Crucificado: El Testimonio de la Experiencia Religiosa Afroamericana.
  • Fidelidad poco común: la experiencia católica Negra.

9. Loida Martell-Otero

Doctora en Teología por la Universidad de Fordham y ministra ordenada por las Iglesia Bautistas. Actualmente es decana del Seminario Teológico de Lexington, donde también se desempeña como profesora de teología constructiva. La Dra. Martell fue pionera en el estudio de la teología evangélica en Estados Unidos. Ha publicado artículos sobre soteriología evangélica, cristología, doctrina de Dios, hermenéutica bíblica, encarnación, escatología, globalización y vocación.


  • Teología en Conjunto: una teología protestante hispana colaborativa.
  • Latinas Evangélicas: un estudio teológico desde los márgenes. 

10. Rosemary Radford Ruether

Teóloga católica conocida por sus importantes contribuciones al campo de la teología feminista. Su campo de conocimiento y escritura es amplio, con temas que van desde la teología feminista y la teología ecofeminista, hasta temas como el antisemitismo y el conflicto palestino-israelí.

La Dra.Radford es una defensora de la ordenación de mujeres, un movimiento entre personas religiosas católicas que afirman la capacidad de las mujeres para servir como sacerdotes, a pesar de la sanción oficial. 


  • La Iglesia contra sí misma.
  • Mujeres y redención: una historia teológica. 
  • Mujeres curando la tierra: mujeres del tercer mundo sobre ecología, feminismo y religión.

El aporte de las mujeres en el campo de la teología en los Estados Unidos es amplio, y se encuentra en crecimiento, en constante evolución y en una continua exploración de aspectos que antes pasaron inadvertidos y que ahora se ponen en relieve, ya que responden a nuestros contextos actuales donde las mujeres toman roles protagónicos y sin duda, aportan no solo en el terreno eclesial sino también en la sociedad misma.

Comparte este artículo y difunde la lectura de teólogas en su comunidad!


Yenny Delgado

Psicóloga y teóloga. Directora de Publica Theology y columnista en Unbound. Escribe sobre las intersecciones entre memoria ancestral, etnicidad, mujerismo y fe pública.

Storytelling With the Divine Feminine: A Powerful Pastoral Narrative

By Samantha N. Mayne

Storytelling is just as powerful as preaching. Pastorally, the capacity to tell myself and others a story that differs from an imposed narrative is essential for survival. Many of us are excluded from the pulpit and invisibilized in the academy. In these spaces, we are forced to accept narratives that actively contribute to our erasure to be pronounced competent. I use storytelling via pastoral en conjunto (together) to highlight the presence of the Divine Feminine in everyday life.

Storytelling with the Divine Feminine can weave together cultural memory, spirituality, and identity from a perspective that de-centers a white supremacist, hetero-patriarchal god. This way of doing pastoral en conjunto can also allow us to do theology in a manner that honors our cultural place within the Christ consciousness- rather than erase it in favor of only one narrative. The braiding of mythologies, theological concepts, and my nepantlera approach to spirituality has resulted in the following excerpt. Las diosas (The Divine Feminine) feature at its center and they do things differently. 

Y así fue…
Two thousand years ago, las diosas ( the feminine divine)got together and came before the Great Wisdom of
the Universe.
“Ey,” they said. “We want to make…a womxn.”
“Holaaaa mamas,” came a voice. Las diosas turned to see the most macho of machitos sauntering into Sabiduria’s throne room. Coatlicue’s snakes hissed, and Bast bared her teeth.
It was the male god built on the violation of womxn.
“Don’t mind him,” Sabiduria said, “I let him in, I was reminiscing about that time with Job.”
Side-eyeing the macho machito, they looked at the Maker of the Universe and asked, “Can’t you get rid of him?”
Sabiduria sighed. “Mira, mijas, I wish I could- but he is not even a part of creation, he purely lives in the minds of men, and even they don’t like him.”
“Ugh.” Coyolxauhqui muttered.
“Ey, but he has nice pecs.” Tia Venus whispered.
“I wish I could grind up pecs like that…” Cihuacoatl said wistfully, looking down at her
“The point is-” Artemis butted in, redirecting because she’s helpful like that,“-we want to make a woman.”
“Ah sí?” Sabiduria looked pensive.
“We want to make someone who has the capacity to withstand all that HE-” Inanna waggled her eyebrows at the macho machito, “brings.”
“She will have something from each of us,” Tonantzin interjected. “So that even though HE spreads,” she glared disgustedly at the macho machito, “everywhere he goes, there will be an element of us. It will be as though he comes from us, and that is how we will be his undoing.”
Sabiduria’s eyes glowed with the light of one thousand stars, and galaxies swirled around the throne room, wrapping each of the goddesses in light. “So be it mijas. You have my permission. Go.”
“I love it when Sabiduria does that…” Astarte said to herself, lost in the great expanse of stars swirling around her.
So it was that las diosas got together and forged a baby girl. They made a pact, each swearing that they were committed to raising her, on top of choosing the earthly parents they would give her to. As to where they were going to send her, well, that was a no-brainer.
“The macho machito has occupied Astarte’s, Hera’s, Isis’s, Inanna’s, and Brigid’s territories with his Roman empire.” Coyolxauhqui said. “We must send her there.”
“Are you sure?” Artemis looked concerned. “It seems like Huitzilopochtli’s getting ideas…”
“I will handle Huitzilopochtli.” Coatlicue said firmly.
So to a town called Nazareth in Inanna’s and Astarte’s territory, the baby girl went, and
they called her…Mariam.
Per the pact las diosas had made, Mariam’s childhood was full of goddess schooling. When she was three, Chalchiutlicue taught her the ways of water.
“No Mariam, not like that,” Chalchiutlicue sighed, “Mira, you touch the water, like this.” As she touched the water, it shimmered and danced. “And now you say…” “SHALOM! BE STILL!” the little girl cried out enthusiastically. The water became still as
“Very good, mama!” Chalchiutlicue nodded. “Okay, now, you walk.” Mariam put her little
baby hands in the goddess’s palms, and slowly, slowly, she put one foot in front of the other, walking on the River Jordan.
“¡Mira! No qué no!” Chalchiutlicue smiled proudly.
“Tlazocamati, Chalchiutlicue.” Mariam said suddenly, hugging the goddess’s legs with her chubby baby arms. Chalchiutlicue’s eyes filled with gratitude spilling over.
“You’re welcome, mama.”
When Mariam turned ten and got her first period, Coyolxauhqui, Artemis, and Diana told her about the sacredness of the moonblood and how virginity meant that she was a sexually sovereign person and that this could absolutely NEVER be lost. They also said not to listen to the idiot men who insisted you had to bleed when you first had sex.
“Anyone who makes you bleed doesn’t deserve to have sex with you, mija.” Diana looked seriously into Mariam’s ten-year-old eyes.
“Okay, Tia.” (Ok, aunt)
“Foreplay is absolutely crucial.” Diana said.
“Okay, Tia.”
Coyolxauhqui laughed as Artemis rushed over to cover Mariam’s ten-year-old ears. “DIANA!”
When Mariam was thirteen, Tia Venus and Tonantzin showed Mariam how to use the creative energy in her womb as something that gave her power. Brigid showed her how to make a protective shield and which plants would talk back to you if you said hello.
“Ohhh, is this how Moses did it?” Mariam’s eyes went wide as the bush she was talking to suddenly began to glow.
Tonantzin elbowed Tia Venus. “Ehh, smart too. She gets it from me.” Brigid smiled. “Sabiduria helped Moses. You have us.”
When Mariam turned fifteen, she found out she was promised to be married. She assembled las diosas and said, “I want to make a baby.”
They were shocked.
“But-” Astarte began.
“I don’t want help. I’m making him myself.” Mariam said stubbornly. “Him?!” Tia Venus was bug-eyed.
“That, she got from you.” Cihuacoatl muttered at Isis.
To be continued…

Sam Mayne (United States)

She received her masters in Pastoral Ministry from the University of Dayton, and is currently enrolled in the Forum for Theological Exploration’s first ever pastoral ministry course. Her main interests are goddess culture, storytelling, and liberation theology. She is passionate about the protection of sacred land sites, and encourages her readers to learn about La Herida Abierta, Mauna Kea, Oak Flat, Line 3, and the Dakota Access Pipeline. Her podcast “El Callejón de Las Diosas” will premiere May 1st, 2022 on Overcast and Spotify.

Mujeres haciendo teología en Abya Yala

Las 10 mujeres teólogas que debes conocer

La teología es una disciplina que estudia la naturaleza de Dios y sus atributos, así como el conocimiento que tiene el ser humano sobre la divinidad. La teología significa el estudio de Dios desde nuestros contextos, preguntas, reflexiones y experiencias cotidianas. 

Las mujeres venimos haciendo teología desde distintas realidades y reflexiones, pero si alguien nos pregunta a cuantas teólogas conocemos y, si hemos leído a alguna, en la mayoría de los casos nos quedaremos en silencio y pensativos: “¿qué teólogas conocemos?, ¿qué escriben y dicen sobre Dios?”. El trabajo de las mujeres en el mundo teológico y pastoral es diverso y con gran aporte, aunque muchas veces invisibilizado por un sistema patriarcal, centrado en los aportes de teólogos varones y geográficamente centrado en la reflexión desde una visión más europea, anglosajona y blanca.

Hoy queremos cerrar esta brecha de silencio y presentarte a las 10 mujeres teólogas que hacen teología desde Abya Yala. Es importante mencionar que el nombre Abya Yala proviene del idioma Guna y significa “tierra en plena madurez”. Desde la década de los 70’s, activistas, escritoras y académicas descendientes de la población nativa hemos adoptado Abya Yala como el nombre unificado del continente en resistencia por un largo periodo de colonización. 

Abya Yala es un continente con una población diversa, la población originaria y su descendencia, así como la población migrante llegada de Europa, África y Asia durante cinco siglos han hecho de Abya Yala su hogar. Por lo que, las teólogas aquí mencionadas reflexionan desde su propia experiencia y ancestralidad.

Aquí les presentamos a las 10 mujeres teólogas de Abya Yala que deben conocer:

1. Sofía Chipana (Bolivia)

Principal voz de la teología indígena en Abya Yala, valora la vida digna y sagrada con la tierra y el respeto por todas las formas de vida. Ha trabajado con redes dedicadas a la reflexión teológica y la articulación de saberes, sabidurías y espiritualidades. Es miembro de la Comunidad de Sabias y Teólogas Indígenas de Abya Yala y de la Comunidad Teológica Andina que fomenta el diálogo entre los pueblos andinos. 

Sofía nos dice: “En los contextos de pueblos colonizados de Abya Yala, la Biblia ha sido utilizada como instrumento colonizador para enajenar nuestras identidades, avasallar nuestros territorios y confinarnos a vivir como extranjeros/as en nuestras propias tierras.”

Publicaciones: “Herramientas de hoy para la exégesis y hermenéutica” y “Apocalíptica: Historias para la recreación de la vida.”

2. Luzmila Quezada (Perú)

Luzmila tiene un largo caminar y reflexión sobre el rol de las mujeres desde las comunidades de fe. Ella es doctora en Historia y Teología y se ha dedicado a la docencia enseñando sobre teología Sistemática, Teología Feminista y Género. A parte de su labor académica, Luzmila es pastora ordenada de la Iglesia Wesleyana. Fundadora de Proceso Kairos Perú y coordinadora del Colectivo de Teólogas Feministas del Perú

Publicaciones: “Re-apropiando nuestras vidas, cuerpos y sexualidades. Guía metodológica”, “Fundamentalismos y Sexualidad.  Género y Religión. Pluralismos y disidencias religiosas”, “Mujeres cristianas, movilidad social y ciudadanía.”

3. Ivonne Gebara (Brasil)

Ivonne trabaja desde Brasil y presenta el eco-feminismo conectando la explotación de la naturaleza con la opresión vivida por las mujeres campesinas, a quienes se les ha explotado y dominado igual que a la madre tierra. Las mujeres han sido relegadas a ser fuentes reproductivas al servicio de un sistema jerárquico patriarcal. 

Ivonne denuncia en su trabajo teológico la violencia puesta sobre la naturaleza, y su relación ideológica, antropológica y míticamente con las mujeres.

Publicaciones: “Mujeres sanando la tierra: ecología, feminismo y religión, según mujeres del Tercer Mundo”, “La sed de sentido. Búsquedas ecofeministas en prosa poética” y “Teología ecofeminista” entre otros.

4. Maricel Mena (Colombia)

Maricel es teóloga, biblista e investigadora. Tiene un post doctorado en Hermenéutica feminista, por la Escuela Superior de Teología en Brasil.

Maricel es especialista en teología contextual, hermenéutica bíblica negra feminista y género. Actualmente trabaja en la Facultad de Filosofía y Teología de la Universidad Saint Thomas e investiga sobre otras religiones, religión comparada y religiones abrahámicas. 

Publicaciones: “Panorama Bíblico Latinoamericano”, “Espiritualidad, Justicia y Esperanza desde las Teologías Afro-Americanas y Caribeñas”, Cuestión de Piel: De las Sabidurías Hegemónicas a las Emergentes” entre otros. 

5.Carolina Bacher (Argentina)

Carolina es doctora en teología y profesora de Teología Pastoral. Su trabajo y reflexión esta centrada en la investigación y acción participativa a través de la teología de los signos de los tiempos. Es integrante del Grupo Iglesia, Sociedad y Estado en Argentina y del Grupo de Teología Urbana “Prácticas de Espiritualidad” de la Arquidiócesis de Buenos Aires. Es vicepresidente de la Sociedad Argentina de Teología SAT.

Publicaciones: “Nos habla en el camino. Consideraciones preliminares en torno al sujeto, objetivo y método de una teología pastoral.” 

6. Agustina Luvis (Puerto Rico)

Agustina tiene un largo recorrido en sus estudios teológicos con una maestría en Teología y un doctorado en Teología Sistemática por la Escuela Luterana de Teología en Chicago. Ella escribe sobre las mujeres y su labor pastoral.  Su trabajo incluye teologías pentecostales y feministas. Agustina es actualmente decana del seminario evangélico de Puerto Rico.

Publicaciones: “El sexo en la Iglesia” y “Creada a su imagen: Una pastoral integral para la mujer.” 

7. Elsa Tamez (México)

Elsa es doctora en Teología con énfasis en Liberación y especializada en Biblia. Obtuvo su doctorado en la universidad de Lausana en Suiza. Sus escritos sobre teología feminista y críticas bíblicas contextuales aportaron nuevas perspectivas a estos campos de estudio. Es profesora emérita de la Universidad Bíblica Latino Americana en San José, Costa Rica. 

Publicaciones: “La Biblia de los oprimidos”, “La amnistía de la gracia” y “Luchas por el poder en el cristianismo primitivo: un estudio de la primera carta de Timoteo” entre otros. 

8. Emilie Townes (Estados Unidos)

Ha sido una pionera en la teología Mujerista, un campo de estudios en el que las ideas históricas y actuales de las mujeres afro descendientes en los Estados Unidos se ponen en un compromiso crítico con las tradiciones de la teología cristiana. Emilie tiene un gran interés en pensar críticamente sobre las perspectivas Mujeristas en temas como el cuidado de la salud, la justicia económica, y la teoría literaria.

Fiel a su trabajo académico ella continúa su investigación sobre la mujer y la salud en la diáspora africana en Brasil y Estados Unidos.

Publicaciones: “Ética teológica feminista”, “La ética Mujerista y la producción cultural del mal” entre otros.

9. Ada Isasi (Cuba)

Su quehacer teológico gira en torno al concepto de exilio y la experiencia de ser inmigrante en Estados Unidos donde critica el sexismo y la violencia de la cultura hispana, herencia de un proceso colonizador y violento en el continente.

Ada escribe desde lo cotidiano, en la experiencia diaria de la vida, como marco epistemológico en su reflexión y escritura. Publicaciones: “Teología Mujerista”, “En la Lucha”, “La lucha continua”

10. Geraldina Céspedes (República Dominicana)

Geraldina es religiosa de la Congregación de Hermanas Misioneras Dominicas del Rosario. Su trayectoria misionera y teológica ha transcurrido en diversas comunidades. Es doctora en Teología Sistemática, cofundadora del Núcleo Mujeres y Teología de Guatemala. Realiza su ministerio teológico y misionero en Chiapas, México.

Geraldine escribe sobre el trato deshumanizante en que las personas son objetos de consumo, y ante seudo espiritualidades de prosperidad y «felicidad». Las mujeres son consumidas y donde solo se busca su rentabilidad para el mercado y el patriarcado. Su trabajo confronta el abuso del tiempo de la mujer y su corporeidad.

Publicaciones: “Eco feminismo Teología saludable para la tierra y sus habitantes”, “Las teologías de la liberación ante el mercado y el patriarcado”.

Estas 10 mujeres teólogas de Abya Yala son una fuente de inspiración y reflexión con una perspectiva más centrada en la equidad y el valor de la mujer, resguardando su identidad y redefiniendo su correcta posición en el mundo. Las mujeres inmersas en el mundo de la teología escriben y practican su fe en sus congregaciones, su reflexión llega a todo el continente. 


Yenny Delgado

Psicóloga y teóloga. Estudiante doctoral en Ciencias de la Religión en la Universidad de Lausana, Suiza. Escribe sobre las intersecciones entre memoria ancestral, etnicidad, mujerismo y fe pública.